The Indian Penal Code

S.No.List of DoctrinesMeaningSection Number
 1Crimon Trahit PersonamCrime carries the personSection 2
 2Communis Hostis OnmiumThey are common enemies of allSection 4
 3Generalia specialibus non derogantIf there is a conflict between general statute and special statute, special statute should winSection 6
 4Inclusion unius (est) exclusion alterionsExpression of one thing exclude the otherSection 6
 5Noscitur a sociisThe meaning of a word is to be judged by the company it keepsSection 7
 6Vir et uxor consentur in lege una personaA husband and wife are regarded in law as one personSection 27
 7Principle of Joint Liability/Constructive liabilityIf two or more persons commit a crime in furtherance of a common intention each of them will be liable jointly.Sections 34, 114, 149
 8Actus ReusA Guilty deed or ActSection 40
 9Bona fideSincere, in good faithSection 52
 10Ignorantia facit doth excusat, Ignorantia juris non excusatIgnorance of fact is an excuse, but Ignorance of law is not an excuse.Sections 76, 79
 11Quod necessitas non habet legemNecessity knows no lawSection 81
 12Doctrine of self-preservationSelf-preservation is not an absolute necessity. There is no necessity that justifies homicide.Section 81
 13Doctrine of necessityAn act which is otherwise a crime may in certain circumstances be excused, if the accused person shows that it was done out of necessity and in other to avoid other harm to person and property.Section 81
 14Doli incapaxIncapable of understandingSection 82
 15Doli capaxCapable of understandingSection 83
 16Malitia supplet aesatemMalice supplies ageSections 82, 83
 17Mc naughten RuleEvery man is presumed to be sane and to posses sufficient degree of reason to be responsible for his crimes, until contrary be proved to the satisfaction of the jury or the court. To establish defence on ground of insanity it must be clearly shown that at the time of committing the act, the accused was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of mind that he did not know the nature and quality of the act he was doing or that he did not know that what he was doing was wrong. If the accused was conscious that the act was one which he ought not to do and if that act was at the same time contrary to the law, he would be punishable.Section 84
 18Furiosus Furore suo punierMad man is punished by his own madnessSection 84
 19Furiosus Furore absentis loco estA mad man is like one who is absentSection 84
 20Furiosus Furore nulla voluntas estA mad man has no willSection 84
 21Non Compos MentisNot of sound mind and understandingSection 84
 22Qui peccat ebrius luat sobriusLet him sin when drunk, be punished when soberSection 86
 23Rule of presumptionIf an offence requiring knowledge or intention is committed by self-induced intoxication, only knowledge, and not intention, of the offence on his part will be presumed.Section 86
 24Volenti non fit injuriaHe who consents suffers no harm.Section 87, 88
 25Abundans Cautela Non NocetAbundant or extreme caution does no harm.Section 93
 26Actus me invito factus est nisi actusAn act which is done by me against my will is not my actSection 94
 27De minimis non qurat lexLaw does not notice triflesSection 95
 28Se defendendoIn self defenceSection 96
 29Doctrine of proportionality of harmThe infliction of harm in private defence should not more than it is necessary to inflict for the purpose of defence.Section 99
 30Ubi non est principalis non potest esse accessoriusWhere there is no principal, there is no accessory.Section 107
 31Accessorium Principale SequiturThe accessory follows the principalSection 109
 32Accessorium Non Ducit Sed Sequitur Suum PrincipaleAn accessory does not draw, but follows its principalSection 109
 33Principle of vicarious liabilityThe section holds a person liable for an offence which he might not have actually committed.Section 149
 34Doctrine of Respondeat superiorLet the master answer and be legally responsible for the wrongful acts of their agents or employees.Section 154, 155
 35Doctrine of transfer of maliceThe section provides for culpable homicide by causing death of a person other than whose death was intended.Section 301
 36Mala in seBad in themselvesSection 302
 37Mala ProhibitaCrimes ProhibitedSection 302
 38In Jure Non Remota Causa Sed Proxima SpectaturIn law, not the remote but the proximate cause is looked atSection 304A
 39Actus Non facit reum nisi mens sit reaThe intent and act must both concur to constitute the crimeSection 378
 40Necessitas inducit privilegium quod jura privateNecessity induces a privilege because of a private rightSection 378
 41Animo FurandiWith an intention of stealingSection 378
 42Res NulisNobody’s PropertySection 404
 43Mala fideIn bad faithSection 420
 44Sic utre tuo ut alienum non laedasUse your own property in such a way as not to injure your neighbour’s propertySection 425
 45Nullus Commodum Capere Potest De Injuria Sua PropriaNo man can take advantage of his own wrongSection 465
 46Voluntas in delictis non exitus spectatorIn offences the intent and not the result is looked atSection 511
 47Proximity RuleAn act constitutes attempt if the offender has completed all the important steps necessary to constitute the offence but the consequence which is the essential element of offence has not taken place because of external circumstances.Section 511
 48Doctrine of Locus PaenitentiaeOpportunity to withdraw from the commission of the crimeSection 511
 49Theory of impossibilityAn act which is impossible to commit cannot be attempted and so is not culpable.Section 511
 50Object theoryIt differentiates the cases where the object is merely mistaken and cases where the object is absent.Section 511
 51On the job theoryIn this theory it is seen whether the accused was actually ‘on the job’ i.e., whether he had gone beyond the stage of preparation and was in the next stage of trying to implement the planned action.Section 511