The Indian Evidence ACT

S.No.List of DoctrinesMeaningSection Number
 1Ipso FactoBy that very fact.Section 4
 2Res GestaeThings said and done in the course of same transaction.Section 6
 3Ab extraFrom outsideSection 6
 4Last Seen TheoryThe theory comes into play where the time gap between the point of time when the accused and the deceased were last seen alive and the deceased is found dead is so small that possibility of any person other than the accused being the author of the crime becomes impossible.Section 7
 5Corpus delictiBody of the crime.Section 8
 6Test Identification ParadeIt is meant to test the veracity of the witness and his capacity to identify unknown persons.Section 9
 7Theory of AgencyEvery conspirator is agent of this association in carrying out the object of conspiracy.Section 10
 8AlibiElsewhereSection 11
 9Without Prejudice AdmissionsAny admissions made by parties genuinely negotiating the settlement of an existing dispute are privileged and will be protected from disclosure to a court at a later date. Section 23
 10Doctrine of confirmation by subsequent facts/eventsevery part of the statement, made at the instance of the accused, in a police custody should necessarily be confirmed by the subsequent events of discovery, to make it admissible in court. Section 27
 11Nemo moriturus praesumitur mentireNo one at the point of death is presumed to lie.Section 32
 12Causa proxima, non remota spectaturThe immediate and not the remote cause is to be consideredSection 32
 13Doctrine of Dying DeclarationA dying declaration means the statement of a person who has died explaining the cause or circumstances of his death.Section 32(1)
 14Necessity RuleThe principle behind is that a person who has the first-hand knowledge of the facts of a case, but who, because of death, disability, etc. is not able to appear before the court, then his knowledge should be transmitted to the court through some other person; the person who has shared the knowledge of that person will be considered as the best evidence.Section 32 and 45
 15Rule of res judicatawhen once there has been a judgment about a fact and the law provides that when there has been such a judgment, no subsequent proceeding would be stated, the previous judgment relevant and can be proved.Section 40
 16In personamAgainst the personSection 43
 17Res inter alia actawhen the opinion of an expert is relevant and has been cited, any fact which will either support his opinion or contradict it will also become relevantSection 46
 18Rule of exclusion of hearsay evidenceOral evidence must be direct.Section 60
 19Best Evidence RuleBest available evidence should be brought before the court. The best evidence about the contents of a document is the document itself.Sections 60, 64, 91
 20Prima FacieOn the face of it.Section 101
 21Ei incumbit probation qui dicit non qui negatBurden of proof lies upon who asserts and not who denies.Section 101
 22Affirmations est probareHe who affirms must prove.Section 101
 23Affirmanti non neganti incumbit probationBurden of proof lies upon him who asserts and not upon him who denies.Section 101
 24Actori incumbit onus probandiThe burden of proof lies on the plaintiff.Section 102
 25Res ipsa loquiturThe things speaks for itself.Section 106
 26Filiatio non potest probariFiliation cannot be proved.Section 112
 27Pater est quem nuptiae demonstrantThe father is he whom the marriage points out.Section 112
 28Semper Praesumitur Pro legitimatione puerorumEverything is presumed in favor of the legitimacy of children.Section 112
 29Doctrine of Reverse burden when the onus of burden of proof is reversed, it creates a situation where the accused, now presumed guilty must adduce evidence beyond reasonable doubt to prove his innocence and be granted an acquittal.Section 113A and Section 113B
 30Omnia praesumuntur rite et solemniter esse actaAll things are presumed to have been done correctly and solemnly.Section 114
 31Allegans Contraria Non est AdmittendaContrary allegations will not be heard.Section 115
 32Ipse DixitHe himself said it.Section 115
 33Doctrine of EstoppelA person will not be allowed to plead the contrary of a fact or state a thing which he has formally asserted by words or conduct.Section 115
 34Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel / Quasi Estoppel / New EstoppelWhere the parties enter into an agreement which is intended to create legal relationship between them and in pursuance of such arrangement, one party makes a promise to the other which he knows will be acted and on the basis of this promise the other promise changes his position, the court will treat the promise as binding on the promisor to the extent that it will not allow him to act inconsistently with it even though the promise may not be supported in strict sense, by consideration.Section 115
 35Salus populi est suprema lexRegard for the public welfare is the highest law.Section 123
 36Evidence has to be weighed not countedNo particular number of witnesses shall be required to prove any fact.Section 134
 37Judicis est judicare secundum allegata et probateIt is the duty of a judge to decide according to the allegations and the proofs.Section 136
 38Rule of CorroborationThe former statements of witnesses may be proved to corroborate later testimony as to the same fact.Section 157
 39Subpoena Duces TecumA writ ordering a person to attend a court and bring relevant documents.Section 162