The Constitution of India

S.No.List of DoctrinesMeaningArticle Number
 1Ejusdem generisOf the same kindArticle 12
 2Ab initioFor the very beginningArticle 13
 3Doctrine of Judicial ReviewA law is declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court or High Court if it contravenes any of the fundamental rights.Articles 13, 32, 226
 4Doctrine of EclipseThe law which contravenes fundamental rights is not void ab initio. It remains in a morbid condition and unenforceable. It is not totally wiped out from the statute book.Article 13
 5Doctrine of severabilityWhole law is not void under Article 13. Only that portion of law is void which contravenes the fundamental rights. Rest of the law may continue to stand and remain operative.Article 13
 6Doctrine of rule of lawSupremacy of law and absence of arbitrary powerArticle 14
 7Principle of reasonable classificationEquals cannot be treated unequally and unequals cannot be treated equally.Article 14
 8Audi alteram partemNo one should be condemned unheardArticles 14, 21, 22
 9Wednesbury PrincipleThis principle is used to adjudge the discretion provided to the executive under the statuteArticle 14
 10Lex non a rege est violandaThe law must not be violated even by the kingArticle 14
 11Pari passuOn equal footingArticle 14
 12Rex quod injustum est facere non potestThe king cannot do what is unjustArticle 14
 13Principle of proportionality of restrictionsRestrictions should not be arbitrary or beyond what is required for achieving the objectArticle 19
 14Ex post factoA law which imposes penalty retrospectivelyArticle 20
 15Double JeopardyNo person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.Article 20
 16Nemo debet bis vexari pro una et eadem causaA man shall not be vexed twice for one and the same cause.Article 20
 17Nemobis punitur poreo dem delictoNo one can be punished twice for the same offenceArticle 20
 18Autrefois convictA defendant’s plea stating that he has already been tried for and convicted of the same offence.Article 20
 19Nova constitutio futuris formam imponere debet, non praeteritisA new law ought to be prospective and not retrospective in operationArticle 20
 20Doctrine of self-incriminationNo person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be witness against himselfArticle 20
 21Nemo tenetur prodere accussare scipsumNo man is bound to accuse himselfArticle 20
 22Nemopunitur pro alieno delictoNo one is to be punished for the crime or wrong of anotherArticle 21
 23Ubi jus ibi remediumWhere there is a right, there is a remedyArticle 21
 24Doctrine of rarest of the rareDeath penalty can only be given in rarest of the rare cases.Article 21
 25Doctrine of Public trustNatural resources like air, water etc. are meant for general use and they cannot be limited by private ownershipArticle 21
 26Precautionary principleThe state government and the concerned authorities must anticipate, prevent and attack causes of environmental degradationArticle 21
 27Polluter’s pay principleOne who carries on hazardous activities is liable to make good the loss caused to another by such activity.Article 21
 28Habeas CorpusYou shall have the BodyArticles 32, 226
 29Locus standiTight of a party to bring an action before the courtArticles 32, 226
 30MandamusWe commandArticles 32, 226
 31Quo warrantoBy what authorityArticles 32, 226
 32CertiorariA writ or order by which a higher court reviews a case tried in a lower court.Articles 32, 226
 33Doctrine of distributive justiceThe provisions deal with social and economic justice in order to minimize the inequalities and promote the welfare of the people.Articles 38, 39
 34Principle of collective responsibilityAll members of the government are unanimous in support of its policies and would exhibit that unanimity on public occasions.Article 75
 35Principle of individual responsibilityAn individual minister is responsible to the legislature for every action taken or omitted to be taken in his Ministry.Article 75
 36Sine dieWithout any future date being designatedArticle 85
 37Ad hocFor the special purposeArticle 127
 38Nunc pro tuncNow for thenArticle 136
 39Stare DecisisTo stand by the precedentsArticle 141
 40Obiter dictaObservations made by the judge which is not essential for the decision reachedArticle 141
 41Ratio decidendiThe reason for the decision given by the courtArticle 141
 42Principle of consistency of lawA division bench ought to follow the earlier decision of a larger benchArticle 141
 43Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionemIt is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdictionArticle 226
 44Theory of territorial nexusThe State Legislature cannot make extra-territorial laws except when there is sufficient connection between the State and the subject matter of the Legislation.Article 245
 45Plenary power of LegislatureIt is the absolute power to enact laws and it is only subject to legislature competence and other constitutional limitations.Article 246
 46Ancillary or incidental powerThe power to legislate on a topic includes the power to legislate on an ancillary or incidental matter which can be said to be reasonable included in the power given.Article 246
 47Doctrine of Pith and SubstanceThis rule envisages that the legislation as a whole is to be examined to ascertain its true nature and character in order to determine to what entry in which list it relates to.Article 246
 48Doctrine of Colorable legislationWhat cannot be done directly, cannot also be done indirectlyArticle 246
 49Bona vacantiaGoods without an ownerArticle 296
 50Doctrine of eminent domainIt is an inherent right of State to acquire private property for public use on payment of compensationArticle 300A
 51Imperium in imperioA sovereignty within a sovereigntyArticle 324
 52In foro conscientiaeIn the form of conscienceArticle 363
 53Doctrine of Basic structureThe power of amendment cannot be exercised in such a way so as to abridge, take away or destroy the basic structure of the ConstitutionArticle 368